New Approaches to the Assessment of Reading and Writing: Focus on Language Awareness

San Lucas
San Lucas
  • ungrammatical,
  • grammatical but semantically incompatible at the sentence level, and
  • grammatical and meaningful in the context of the sentence but incompatible at the text level.
Sample writing assessment from Mexican students
Sample writing assessment from Mexican students
  • how to be attentive, respectively, to errors of spelling, grammar or punctuation/capitalization, and
  • reviewing the criteria for an acceptable attempt by demonstrating positive and negative examples.
  • beginning with phonemic and orthographic awareness, for young readers in particular,
  • other kinds of focus-on-form attention at the word level,
  • awareness of grammatical patterns as this awareness is used in constructing sentence meaning, and
  • awareness of structure (involving concepts, events, etc.) in paragraph and text coherence building.
  • the closed-ended choice item (the cloze test),
  • to limited, or constructed, response specific problem solving (the error correction test),
  • to the traditional open-ended writing assessment with its unlimited number of satisfactory responses (the written expression task).
Bilingual classroom

 by the author.



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Norbert Francis

Norbert Francis


Norbert Francis works on problems of language and culture, research in Latin America and East Asia.